Exploration on the management of machinery and equipment of highway construction enterprises

1 Overview

Highway construction and development, in recent years, has become the theme of transportation, construction machinery has also developed rapidly, construction machinery has become more large-scale, specialized, serialized, and developed in the direction of intelligence.

On the one hand, to speed up the project progress of high-grade highway construction, promote the improvement of highway construction quality, reduce labor intensity and shorten the construction period provides the necessary hardware.

On the other hand, it puts forward new requirements for the use of construction machinery and equipment, maintenance work, management, etc. Under the new situation, how to improve efficiency and use good equipment, become an important issue of enterprise management.

2 Road construction machinery and equipment management problems

2.1 There is no scientific planning, and the configuration is not economic The highway project itself is easily affected by various internal and external factors, so it has a changeable nature. When the specific construction environment changes, engineering construction personnel are bound to adjust the construction plan and construction process according to the changing reality, which in turn will have an impact on the selection of construction machinery and equipment, and there will be temporary deployment or purchase of equipment.

Although people can not predict the construction of unexpected circumstances, but as a construction company, should be in the reserve and purchase of machinery and equipment to do a rainy day. But the reality is that many construction units in the configuration of equipment there is blindness, no long-term planning, often a single type of machinery, repeated acquisition and so on. Some machinery and equipment in the purchase before the field research is not done, after the purchase of mechanical models, characteristics do not meet the actual construction needs.

Although its performance state is good, but can not play its proper role, the utilization rate is too low. There will even be new equipment only once or twice to be used in the “cold” situation.

2.2 assessment methods are not sound, management system is not perfect personnel and machinery and equipment “pot rice” consciousness in the construction enterprise exists, not from the true sense of the full implementation of the vehicle machinery single vehicle accounting, did not establish a sound scientific and perfect mechanical management system and assessment methods.

2.3 The quality of operators is not high, the professional ability of management personnel is not strong In many highway construction enterprises, there is often heavy equipment acquisition, light equipment management problems, specifically in the equipment management staffing, to do not know the technology of non-professional staff. While some managers have professional knowledge, but often lack the ability to professional management.

In addition, limited by the lack of funds, coupled with backward maintenance methods, making the maintenance of machinery at a low level, the effect is not good, not conducive to the long-term use of equipment. Under such conditions, some mechanical management personnel decline in responsibility, maintenance awareness is indifferent, the role of mechanical management has not been played.

Deeper, this reflects that the management of machinery does not pay enough attention to the enterprise, neglecting the training and education of mechanical operators and managers, the lack of long-term development vision.

3 measures to strengthen the management of road construction machinery and equipment

3.1 Configuration economization

3.1.1 Construction program preferential selection.

One of the main purposes of highway construction machinery management is to achieve the scientific application and deployment of machinery to promote the improvement of construction efficiency. In order to achieve this purpose, it is necessary to start from the optimization of the construction program. According to the construction volume and construction progress of the project to select the corresponding equipment, and reasonable arrangements for its entry and exit time, so as to effectively combine the deployment of equipment with the degree of progress of the project to achieve the optimization of the program.

For example, in the project with large volume, large machinery and equipment are used; in the project with small volume, small and medium-sized machinery can be used. Of course, this collocation is not absolute, the specific machinery matching also according to the actual needs to determine. In the construction of pavement projects, special attention should be paid to the optimal selection of asphalt concrete mixing plant, pavers and other key equipment.

3.1.2 Matching equipment efficiency.

Construction enterprises should achieve optimization of efficiency by reasonably controlling the intrinsic collocation of equipment combinations:.
In the combination of equipment, try to choose machinery with comprehensive functions, reduce auxiliary supporting equipment, and improve operational efficiency and stability.
In the combination of equipment, we should emphasize and ensure the performance and role of the main machinery and equipment, supporting equipment in a subordinate position, to serve the main equipment and improve the efficiency of the main equipment as the standard for matching.
Secondary equipment is not unimportant, to try to ensure the reliability and stability of such equipment to make up for the weakness of equipment configuration, to achieve the juxtaposition of local construction equipment.

3.2 Management specialization

3.2.1 Specialization of management personnel.

Construction enterprises should develop a management system for mechanical equipment with clear responsibilities, set clear positions for equipment management, and equip professional managers and technicians to be in charge. The level and work efficiency of these managers will largely affect the quality of construction projects and also affect the service life of machinery and equipment. Therefore, we should pay attention to their training. Skill learning should be carried out in various forms during the construction interval to strengthen the professional training of managers and operators, which is not only necessary to serve the immediate construction operations, but also an inevitable choice to promote employees to improve their comprehensive quality and achieve healthy development of the enterprise.

3.2.2 Quantification of daily management.

For construction enterprises, the use of machinery and equipment behind all need the support of capital operation. Construction enterprises should accurately grasp the input and output of each piece of machinery and equipment, quantify the construction economic benefits of machinery and equipment, and conduct statistical analysis of the input-output ratio to improve the economic control of the equipment and make the management of machinery and equipment more targeted.

3.2.3 Project target responsibility.

A set of economic and technical indicators and assessment system should be established to facilitate the assessment of the management personnel of machinery and equipment. At the same time, the management objectives should be refined, so that the responsibility can be assigned to people, so that the assessment can finally be put into practice.

3.3 Standardization of operation

3.3.1 Standardization of construction operations.

The requirements for machinery operators should be put forward from two aspects: normality and technicality. On the one hand, the operator of the equipment should operate in strict accordance with the technical specifications and instructions for the use of equipment; on the other hand, the internal regulations on the use of equipment in the enterprise should be observed. For the main equipment to implement the fixed machine, fixed person, fixed position system; to obtain the “operating certificate” before the operation of the relevant equipment, the special operators of each machine must be trained and tested; untrained non-position personnel are strictly prohibited to operate the equipment, adhere to the license to work.

3.3.2 Regular safety education.

Once the project construction safety problems, will bring significant economic losses to the construction project, the enterprise will spend a lot of human, material and financial resources to deal with safety accidents, but also bring losses to the social reputation of the enterprise. Therefore, enterprises should fully understand the importance of safety education and the significance of employees as the main body of construction construction for the decision of project safety. Enterprises should strengthen the safety training and assessment of machinery and equipment operators in ordinary times, improve their awareness of safety responsibility and self-protection ability, so that these hands operating important construction machinery in the operation of the personnel to achieve standardization, standardization, and truly achieve safe production.

3.4 Scientific maintenance   

3.4.1 Preventive inspection daily.

Routine inspection of machinery and equipment is important for timely detection of safety hazards and prevention of major accidents. In order to really do prevention before it happens, construction enterprises in the daily management of equipment, the maintenance, inspection and maintenance of equipment should be combined. Among them, because the machine operator for the state of the equipment is the most understanding, but also the most able to find the problem at the first time, so the daily maintenance can be left to them to complete. The daily inspection and maintenance of the equipment are carried out by professional repairers. According to the actual situation of each construction site, the project department will set up a comprehensive inspection log of the machinery, make economic rewards and punishments to the maintenance personnel, and compare the inspection and maintenance of each piece of equipment with the operation and maintenance of the equipment in the same month.

3.4.2 Scientific equipment maintenance.

Scientific maintenance helps to improve the efficiency of the equipment and extend the service life of the equipment. And to do this, not only by virtue of daily maintenance experience, but also to strictly comply with the requirements of the equipment manual, standardize the maintenance process, to avoid blindness and arbitrariness. Such as the replacement of equipment lubricant does not comply with the requirements of the replacement cycle or do not talk about the brand number, will give the safe operation of equipment to lay hidden dangers, reduce the service life of equipment.

3.4.3 Regularized professional maintenance.

An important part of the development of maintenance plans is the regular inspection of machinery and equipment. In the actual equipment fault detection, employees often rely on their rich experience to make judgments. If there is a problem with a part of the equipment, then the equipment is disassembled by manual means, then the faulty part is found and replaced, and finally reassembled. Although this maintenance method is more convenient, but there is a fatal shortcoming, that is, over-reliance on human experience, easy to cause a high rate of rework due to fault judgment errors. In order to avoid this situation, the performance of the machinery should be tested by modern professional instruments and equipment to determine the content and time of its repair. Especially in the current road construction machinery is becoming more and more complex, technology content continues to improve, equipment supporting more and more fine situation, this modern, professional overhaul way has more important significance.

4 Improve the business level

Mechanized construction is a comprehensive science, it is the construction technology and construction machinery and modern construction organization, improve the function, improve the structure, the use of new technology, new technology, new materials more and more modern construction machinery.

Therefore, it is necessary to carry out various forms of management, operator training business to improve the level of mechanized construction management. Combined with the actual problems and knowledge base of the trainees, increase training efforts, planned and systematic organization of personnel at all levels of training courses to introduce a competitive mechanism and management personnel training mechanism.

Through training to broaden horizons and update knowledge. In addition, to learn modern management ideas and management theory, with advanced management methods and management tools, technology, professional construction machinery and equipment, pipeline repair team to meet the needs of the rapid development of road mechanization construction.

5 Conclusion

In today’s environment, construction companies want to do a good job in the management of machinery and equipment, it is necessary to use the system engineering point of view on the comprehensive management of machinery and equipment. The main thing is to improve the rules and regulations, and be good at using modern information management means to increase the availability and utilization rate of equipment. At the same time, according to the actual characteristics and needs of the project, optimize the combination of equipment and strengthen the maintenance of equipment in order to improve the performance of equipment and guarantee the successful completion of construction tasks. Only in this way, the management of machinery and equipment can do better.

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